Here are several lists of substitutions to use when baking and cooking. Note that we try to avoid soy as well as dairy and gluten, so I've geared my substitutions toward those needs, though all are listed below. I've put a star next to my favorite substitutions, if I have one, in each category.
Here is an excellent article discussing the role of each ingredient in baking...important to determine which substitution will work best.
Common Substitutions: (my comments are in red)
For baking and other uses we've found Coconut milk to be the best substitute. It has the good fatty acids, it produces a wonderful texture in baked goods, and doesn't add any off flavors to dishes like scalloped potatoes. Vance's DariFree is great to have on hand to make ice cream, hot chocolate mix, and as a back up for those times you run out of other substitutes.
Replace 1 cup milk with one of the following:
1 cup soy milk (plain or vanilla)
1 cup rice milk + 1 egg yolk
1 cup fruit juice
1 cup water + 1 egg yolk
*1 cup coconut milk
1 cup Vance's DariFree (a potato based milk substitute that comes in powder form)
Replace 1 cup buttermilk with one of the following:
*1 cup milk replacer of your choice+ 1 tablespoon lemon juice or 1 tablespoon white vinegar (Let stand until slightly thickened.)
Replace 1 cup yogurt with one of the following:
1 cup soy, *coconut, or rice yogurt
1 cup soy sour cream
1 cup unsweetened applesauce
1 cup fruit puree
Replace 8 tablespoons (1 stick) butter with one of the following:
8 tablespoons (1 stick) Fleischmann’s unsalted margarine
*8 tablespoons Earth Balance (Non-Dairy) Buttery Spread (has less soy than all the other "butter" type substitutes)
*8 tablespoons Spectrum Organic Shortening (excellent non hydrogenated "shortening" made from palm oil)
8 tablespoons vegetable or olive oil
For reduced fat:
6 tablespoons unsweetened applesauce+2 tablespoons fat of choice
I would always mix up the unflavored gelatin as my egg substitute, but had the Egg Replacer powder on hand (used that for ice cream).
Replace 1 large egg with one of the following:
*3 T gelatin mixture made by dissolving 1 packet of unflavored gelatin in 1 cup boiling water. Store in refrigerator and use as needed. (often I'd measure what was needed, then melt it back down to a liquid so I didn't end up with clumps in my muffins or whatever)
3 tablespoons unsweetened applesauce (or other fruit puree) + 1 teaspoon baking powder
1 tablespoon flax meal + 3 tablespoons hot water. (Let stand, stirring occasionally, about 10 minutes or until thick. Use without straining.)
3T chia seed meal + 3 tablespoons water (grind white chia seeds in spice grinder to get meal)
*Egg Replacer, according to package directions
4 tablespoons pureed silken tofu +1 teaspoon baking powder
Replacing more than two eggs will change the integrity of a recipe. For recipes that call for a lot of eggs, like a quiche, use pureed silken tofu. Because egg substitutions add moisture, you may have to increase baking times slightly.
Note: To replace one egg white, dissolve 1 tablespoon plain agar powder into 1 tablespoon water. Beat, chill for 15 minutes and beat again.
NutsReplace tree nuts or peanuts with an equal amount of the following:
Toasted sesame seeds (use only 2 to 3 tablespoons)
Crushed crispy rice cereal
Crushed potato chip's
Perky’s Nutty Rice cereal
*Daiya deliciously dairy free (comes in mozzarella, cheddar, and pepper jack flavors)
Tinkyada rice pasta
Schar pasta (rice based)
*Sam Mills pasta from Amazon (corn based) (can also find this at Big Lots sometimes)